Ask the Children of Israel how many a sign of evidence We have given them. And whoever exchanges the favor of Allah [for disbelief] after it has come to him – then indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.
“And whoever exchanges the favor of Allaah” – This is general and includes everyone even though it is used to indicate Bani 'israa'iil because they changed what was in their Books and strove against Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). This also includes the disbelievers of the Quraish because Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) was sent to them as a blessing. They denied this blessing when they refused to accept the blessing and were not thankful for it by remaining kaafirs.
They exchanged belief for disbelief when chose not to accept Islaam.
Anyone who rejects the Message that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) has brought falls under this Verse.
al-Tabari said the blessing in this Verse means Islaam.