What is the ruling of visiting a kaafir who is sick? Is it permissible to do Ruyqa on him with the dua which has come to us in the hadith?
There are three different opinions among the scholars regarding this matter.
First, it is not impermissible. This opinion is Qiyaas based on the fact that you cannot initiate the greeting of salaam to them.
Second, it is permissible to do so because this is a form of righteousness which Allaah has not forbidden.
Third, you are only allowed to do so when your intention is to call the kaafir towards Islaam.
Ibn Taymiyyah has chosen the opinion that it is permissible to do so. He was presented with the scenario of a group of Muslims who were neighbors to Christians and asked if it would be permissible for a Muslim to visit the Christian when the Christian falls sick.
He replied: As for visiting him, there is no harm in it because by doing so there is the possibility of the benefit of influencing his heart toward Islaam.
This is even more stressed when the ill person is a relative or a neighbor. It is highly recommended that when one visits the ill person he invites him toward Islaam by good manners and by explaining things.
Abu Abd Allaah was asked if it is permissible to visit a relative who is a Christian when he is sick?
He replied: Yes.
He was asked: Even if he is a Christian?
He said: I hope the matter of visiting [the sick] is not restricted.
The following serve as evidence for this opinion:
When Abu Talib's death approached, the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) went to him while Abu Jahl and `Abdullah bin Abi Umaiya were present with him. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said, "O uncle, say: None has the right to be worshipped except Allah, so that I may argue for your case with it before Allah." On that, Abu Jahl and `Abdullah bin Abu Umaiya said, "O Abu Talib! Do you want to renounce `Abdul Muttalib's religion?" Then the Prophet said, "I will keep on asking (Allah for) forgiveness for you unless I am forbidden to do so." Then there was revealed:– 'It is not fitting for the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and those who believe that they should invoke (Allah) for forgiveness for pagans even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are companions of the Fire.' (9.113)
It has also been transmitted from the Companions that they visited the kaafirs who were ill. Abu Dardaa' would visit his neighbor who was a Jew when he fell ill.
A young Jewish boy used to serve the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and he became sick. So the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) went to visit him. He sat near his head and asked him to embrace Islam. The boy looked at his father, who was sitting there; the latter told him to obey Abul-Qasim and the boy embraced Islam. The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) came out saying: "Praises be to Allah Who saved the boy from the Hell-fire."
Doing Ruqya on the kaafirs
As for using the 'ad'iyah which have come to us in the hadith and Qur'aanic Verses to perform Ruqya on the kaafirs, then it seems that is permissible based on the following hadith:
"Abu Sa'eed Al Khudri narrated:
"Some of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) came across a tribe of Bedouins that did not entertain them, nor behave hospitality with them. Their leader became ill, and they came to us saying: 'Do you have any medicine?' We said: ' Yes. But you did not entertain us nor have us as guests so we will not do anything until you give us something.' Then they gave sheep for that." He said: 'So a man from us began reciting the Opening of the Book (Surah al-Fatihah) and he was cured. So when we came to the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W) we mentioned to him, He said: 'How did you know it was Ruqyah?' And he did not mention any prohibition against it and he said: 'Eat , and assign me a share among you from them (Sheep).'"
The apparent meaning of the hadith suggests that the Bedouins here were kaafirs because they did not entertain the Companions (may Allaah be pleased with them) of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).
What about making dua for the kaafirs?
It is also permissible to make dua that Allaah guide the kaafirs. What is forbidden is to make duaa that Allaah give them Paradise or to ask forgiveness for them.
Visiting the ill kaafir, doing Ruqya on him, and making dua for him